Causes , Symptoms and Controlling Diabetes
Here is some relevant information regarding Causes , Symptoms and Controlling Diabetes. At first we hope nobody suffers from this sugary disease. However if you do, the below piece of information will surely help:
Diabetes Mellitus, often referred to as diabetes by doctors, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person suffers from high blood glucose (sugar). It can be either because their insulin production is inadequate, or because the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia).
Fast facts on diabetes
Here are some key points about diabetes. Find detailed and supporting information below :
- In 2013 it was estimated that over 415 million people throughout the world had diabetes (Williams textbook of endocrinology).
- Type 1 Diabetes – the body does not produce insulin. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1.
- Type 2 Diabetes – the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type. Causes , Symptoms and Controlling Diabetes
- Gestational Diabetes – this type affects females during pregnancy.
- Diabetes is generally a long-term condition that causes high blood sugar levels.
- Some common symptoms of diabetes include frequent urination, weight gain, unusual weight loss, intense thirst and hunger, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, sexual dysfunction in males, numbness and tingling in hands and feet.
- If you suffer from Type 1 diabetes and follow a healthy eating plan, do adequate exercise and take insulin, you can minimize the diabetic effect and live a normal life.
- Type 2 patients need to eat healthily, be physically active, and test their blood glucose. They may also need to take oral medication, and/or insulin to control blood glucose levels.
- The risk of cardiovascular diseases are much higher for a diabetic. It is mandatory to get blood pressure and body cholesterol levels monitored regularly.
- Smoking has an adverse effect on cardiovascular health, diabetics should quit smoking.
- Hypoglycemia – low blood glucose – can have a bad effect on the patient. Hyperglycemia – when blood glucose is too high – can also have a bad effect on the patient.
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Common symptoms of diabetes
The most common signs and symptoms of diabetes are:
Excessive thirst and frequent urination are some symptoms of diabetes Generally when there is too much glucose (sugar) in your blood you will urinate more often.
It is quite obvious that if you are urinating more then you’ll be drinking more water than usual.
Since the insulin in body is not there at all or is not working properly, hence the cells in the body are not getting there required energy. Hence the body may react by trying to find more energy leading to hunger pangs.
Intense hunger would obviously lead to weight gain gradually.
Unusual weight loss
Type 1 diabetes causes people to lose weight. Since the body is not making insulin, it will seek out another energy source. Muscle tissue and fat will be ultimately broken down for energy. Type 1 is of a more sudden onset and Type 2 is more gradual, weight loss is more dominant in Type 1.
Body insulin, not working properly or not being there at all, glucose would not enter your cells and provide them with energy. It will make you feel tired and listless.
Lack of energy would lead to irritability.
Tissue being pulled from eye lenses will lead to Blurred vision. This will affect the eyes’ ability to focus. There are cases even where blindness or prolonged vision problems can occur.
Difficulty with healing of cuts and bruises
Since the presence of more sugar in the blood, it will undermine the body’s ability to heal cuts and bruises.
Skin and Yeast infections
Presence of more sugar in the body would affect the ability to recover from infections. Women face a lot of problems recovering from bladder and vaginal infections.
Itchiness on the skin can also be a symptom of diabetes.
Red Gums and gums pulling away from teeth
If you suffer from tender gums, or if they are red and/or swollen this could be a sign of diabetes. Your teeth could become loose as the gums pull away from them.
Frequent gum disease/infection
As well as the previous gum symptoms, you may experience more frequent gum disease and/or gum infections.
Sexual dysfunction among men
If you are aged over 50 and are experiencing frequent or constant sexual dysfunction (Errectile dysfunction), diabetes can be blamed.
Numbness or tingling, especially in your feet and hands
If there is too much sugar in your body your nerves could become damaged, as could the tiny blood vessels that feed those nerves. You may experience tingling and/or numbness in your hands and feet.
What is Pre diabetes?
A majority of patients with type 2 diabetes initially had pre diabetes. Their blood glucose levels were higher than normal, but not high enough to merit a diabetes diagnosis. The cells in the body are becoming resistant to insulin.
Some studies have also indicated that even at pre diabetes stage, some damage to the circulatory system and the heart may already have occurred.
Diabetes as a metabolism disorder
Diabetes is more of a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to the way our bodies use up the digested food for energy and growth. Most of what we eat is broken down into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar in the blood. It is the major source of fuel for our bodies.
When the food is digested, the glucose makes its way into our bloodstream. Our cells use glucose for energy and growth. Glucose, however cannot enter our cells without the presence of insulin. Insulin helps the cells take in glucose. Pancreas produce insulin . After eating, pancreas release an adequate amount of insulin to move the glucose present in our blood into the cells. As soon as glucose enters the cells, blood glucose levels drop automatically.
A person with diabetes also has a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is too elevated (hyperglycemia). It is because the body is either not producing enough insulin at all or the level of insulin produced is not adequate or has cells that do not respond properly to the insulin the pancreas produce. It results in too much glucose building up in the blood. This excess blood glucose eventually passes out of the body in urine. That would mean, even though there is plenty of glucose in the body, the cells are not getting it for their essential growth and energy requirements.
How to determine whether you have diabetes, prediabetes or neither
Doctors can quite easily determine if a patient has a normal metabolism, pre diabetes or diabetes in one of three different ways. There are three possible tests :
- The A1C test
– at least 6.5% means diabetes
– between 5.7% and 5.99% means prediabetes
– less than 5.7% means normal
- The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test
– at least 126 mg/dl means diabetes
– between 100 mg/dl and 125.99 mg/dl means prediabetes
– less than 100 mg/dl means normal
An abnormal reading following the FPG means the patient has impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
- The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)
– at least 200 mg/dl means diabetes
– between 140 and 199.9 mg/dl means prediabetes
– less than 140 mg/dl means normal
An abnormal reading following the OGTT means the patient has impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
Controlling diabetes – Effective and essential treatment
Diabetes (Any Type ) is treatable : Type 1 diabetes lasts a lifetime, there is no known cure. Type 2 diabetes usually is for lifetime, however there have been cases where people have managed to get rid of their symptoms without medication, though a combination of exercise, diet and body weight control.
Special diets can help sufferers of type 2 diabetes control the condition.
Researchers from the Mayo Clinic Arizona in Scottdale showed that gastric bypass surgery can reverse type 2 diabetes in a high proportion of patients. According to them, the disease recurs in approximately 21% of them within three to five years.
Patients with type 1 are treated with regular insulin injections, as well as a special diet and exercise.
Patients with Type 2 diabetes are usually treated with tablets, exercise and a special diet, but sometimes insulin injections are also required.
If diabetes is not adequately controlled, there are high chances that the patient might develop serious complications.
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